Impressionism...1863ish what the eye "perceives and the brain understand are TWO" totally different things. Some of the art depicts life in Von Hausmann's new Paris. Lots of just regular folks living their lives. Bars, hanging out, parks, walking, eating. It (at least in this context) will focus on the alienation of living life in a big city; really the FIRST modern Big City. This was new, revolutionary art. It was the time of Napoleon the III. Many folks looked at the art and were like "what IS this."The idea that it all looked like sketches, that they weren't done yet. In 1863 things will begin to change in the art world. Much of the NEW art is refused entrance into the annual Art Salon event due to the CONSERVATIVE world of Napoleon III's 2nd Empire. The folks' who are not allowed complained and Napoleon III, who remember, began allowing more free expression in the 2nd half of his reign, said essentially let the refused artists have their own exhibit. They did! The Salon des Refuse. Lots of NEW artist made their mark here. Manet, Pissaro. The master of it all is Claude Monet. A work of his "Impression" will help create the NAME of the movement
Post Impressionism came next. 1880s Here, you'll get Cezanne, Seurat(pointillism) Van Gogh, Gaugin,Cezanne. Emphasis on emotions and memories of the artist here. Remember, Van gogh was a very emotional guy.
Lots of stuff happening in France at the end of the 19th century. What a time it must have been to be alive. I really like looking at the Exposition of 1889. To my knowledge, it's basically the World Fair or what in the 20th Century will be Expo.... I'd refer to it as Exposition of 1889. Look at the year. Its 100th Anniversary of something that took place in Paris 100 years before. See way below to continue....
The new Paris also offered business opportunities. How? WHY? Emile Zola-who also wrote J'Accuse mastered the writing of realism referred to Department Stores as "Cathedrals of Modernity." The new paris was vibrant, alive, and promoted consumerism. The Cathedrals of Modernity offered much in fact many women will work at them. They also hurt the small business. Capitalism.
Look at the Third Republic.
Pan Slavism---This could be a legacy of Nationalism that is promoted by Russia and to be sure Serbs! The latter now feel a bit liberated w the Ottoman Empire in Decline. Hey! What was the "Eastern Question" all about?
Schliefen Plan. Germany's ONLY plan. Invade through neutral Belgium. (this would bring GB in but germany hoped they would not or would be a non factor) then PUSH down to paris. THEN off to crush Russia. This would avoid Bismarck's great fear (although he's long been dead) of a TWO Front WAR; Western Front, Eastern Front.
Remember...the Battle of Valmy in 1792 SAVED france from the european powers who'd advanced into France. They were conservative forces (of course) and would have restored Louis and end the revolution. It was a CITIZEN effort. Volunteers , sans coulotte, AND regular army soldier. Battle of the Marne, 1914 the French are saved by stopping the Gerrman in N. France. Trench warfare will ensue. Both battles, linked together could be used a synthesis as "saving" france.
Yes! 100th anniversary of the French Revolution! The Exposition will also "unveil" the building of the Eiffel Tower. It'll be the tallest man made structure in the world for like 3o years. It was made of iron and utilized modern scientific and engineering techniques. It'll also have a revolutionary device to allow guests to go the top quickly; the Lift! aka the Elevator! Go engineering! "Yeah science!" (JP)
I want you to look at some of the key themes that Eiffel uses there and see if it helps explain the modern age that it is in and that the Exposition hopes to share. Of note as well...many folks and even artists hated it! couldn't stand it. Of note, too. In ww1 at the battle of the marne, a radioman climbed to the top of it and was able to jam German radio transmissions to upset communications. How could you fit synthesis here? Could you? Irony? Facts? Comparison?
Quote below from Gustave Eiffel
"Not only the art of the modern engineer, but also the century of Industry and Science in which we are living, and for which the way was prepared by the great scientific movement of the eighteenth century and by the Revolution of 1789, to which this monument will be built as an expression of France's gratitude"