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Buchan, Kelly » 2018-19 School Year!

2018-19 School Year!

Welcome Mustangs!

This is my Fifteenth year as a social studies teacher and my tenth as a Mustang. Previously, I spent five great years at Bernardo Yorba Middle School.

This year I will be teaching world and AP European history. Also, I will be the coach of our Academic Decathlon team.

Parents AND Students! Please sign up for my text service through Remind.com I will send texts with historical information that can be beneficial. See website for information. Additionally, all students need to sign up for google classroom. I'll post many things w/in it that you will be responsible for. Glad to have you and I'm very excited to be with you for the year!
El Dorado High School 1997
UCSB 2001


Recent Posts

Attack France's Conservative Neighbors? Girondin's say "yes" Robespierre NO.

Of course when Robespierre and his Jacobins take over the tune will change. Here is a quote from a speech Robespierre gave in response to his political Rival (and radical) Girondin colleagues. 
""The most extravagant idea that can be born in the head of a {thinking man} is to believe that it {is appropriate} for people to INVADE, weapons in hand, among a foreign people and expect to have its laws and constitution embraced. No one loves armed missionaries; the first lesson of nature and prudence is to repulse them as enemies. The Declaration of the Rights of Man is not a beam of sunlight which shines on all men, and it is not a lightning bolt which strikes every throne at the same time...I am far from claiming that our Revolution will not eventually influence the fate of the world...But I will say that it will not be today.""
On his opposition to the 1792 War.

"Meet the NEW Boss-Same as the OLD Boss"The Who

Essentially what happens is that the National Assembly and THEN the Nat. Constituent Assembly(once summer of '89 kicks in) will replace the power and authority of the the nobility class w. that of the landed class, wealth, education. --Again, the French Rev is a POLITICAL Rev. The 19th Century will see Revs. based on SOCIAL demands. At this point though, that new class...the BOURGEOISIE had gained class consciousness and wanted POWER!  The Age of Enlightenment! Freedom! Be what YOU can be! Believe, work, speak whatever you believe! ----Indecisive as ever...Louis xvi delayed ratifying (making into law) the Dec of the Rights of Man. People grew suspicious. "Is this dude w us or not?" Remember '88 and'89 and seen a terrible harvest. Bread was OUT of control. People were going hungry. (note on the free market...the free market, Adam Smith laissez faire....would say let the MARKET determine the value of bread. The MARKET had a HUGE demand for it. SO costs SKYROCKETED!!) The poor and the San Coulotte were really hurting. It'll be the Sans Coulotte who urge the new govt to issue a "Law of Maximum." This would put a limit on the cost of bread; the GOVT would. This was obviously unpopular to the new govt. Women, MOMS were furious(Oct '89). The famous Fish Monger women of the Markets were big tough women who used knives to carve up fish to be sold. They embarked on the first JOURNEE (revolutionary march somewhere) to Versailles demand the king do something! They storm into versailles, kill the kings guards, WANT to kill Marie Antoinette, kill her guards. they eventually settle w taking the king and his family back to Paris. "we are taking the baker, the bakers wife and the bakers apprentice (the Prince) back to Paris!!" The King was referred to the baker because they women, working class, poor women were NOT part of the bourgeoisie. They relied on their govt to help them. What they find infuriates them. The king had been HOARDING GRAIN!!! TONS of grain for he and Versailles! 
------The Nat Const Assembly still wanted a Const Monarch.Remember! ALL were equal in the eyes of the law. But...not ALL were equal. Democracy, DIRECT democracy was seen as dangerous. The only power the King got was to veto. To TEMPORARILY stop legislation. The Constitution of 1791 meant to keep popular ideas down.  Remember, if everyone in France could vote, they'd likely do something to help the poor. The new govt  NOW CALLED THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY(made of bourgeoise, propertied owning folks, and nobility) want a govt that protect THEIR PROPERTY(this theme of property is so important. Land, $$, business--you'll see it next year, too.) PROPERTY and wealth determined your life in the France
What you'll get it 2kinds of citizens. Active, those who could annual taxes of 3 days or more cold VOTE to elect ELECTORS!! the Electors had to have More $$! in a country of 25 million of apx 50k MEN could vote. Passive citizens were EQUAL before the eyes of the law but had no property, no property rights, and NO RIGHT to vote. 
$$ GOODbye Guilds. Laws were made to restrict workers from ORGANIZING unions or WORKING together to demand better pay. The free market loves to keep wages low. These laws were called Chapelier Laws. The working class hated them. w no guilds, income for workers plummeted. 
***The church! The State confiscated all church lands and sold them to pay off debts. To help pay frances bills, PAPER money(unique because they were paper and not actually silver or gold) were given. The confiscated church lands were used to back it up. Ouch. Next....the assembly voted that Priest were MUST take oaths to the new state. They would be paid by the state.  They were now employees of the state(1790) It was a huge mistake. It really made the faithful angry. Priests who refused were known as nON JURING PRIESTS. The Catholic church and the Pope are furious, absolutely furious. This action by the revolution, the enlightened ideas, will create animosity between the catholic church and enlightenment principles until a few decades ago. 

Parlements NOT Parliaments

Power in France resided in established TRADITION, inherited rights and privilege. That of the nobility and the Clergy. (Remember, in this case, the idea of clergy r bishops, arch bishops, cardinals) Historically, in France there had been 13 different PARLEMENTS. These parliaments were really just Courts of Appeal throughout France. They made NO laws. They had lots of power is determining legality of TAXATION. Mostly, the Judges who served on the parliaments PURCHASED OR Inherited (remember "tradition", "privilege"!)their ability to serve (nobility of the Gown) The most powerful of the parlements BY FAR was the one in Paris. Remember, these Parlements were headed by the nobility. The nobility and aristocracy were VERY adamant about not changing anything; especially that regarding the idea of taxation. ONLY members of the 3rd Estate paid taxes. One of the points of the Rev was to promote equality. They saw the idea of them paying taxes as taking away their special role in France. They were not the "Equals" to peasants. Nobles could do cool things like carry a sword or wear family crest. Parlements would ALWAYS stand in the way of CENTRALIZING authority.(Although Louis XIV was successful in giving lots of restrictions to them. They end when he died) They hated it. These parlements would be roadblocks to reform at the BEGINNING of the Rev. So Parlements were responsible for posting and enforcing new taxes. As the rev grew closer and calls (especially from dudes like Turgot) for a more equitable tax system grew they refused to post ANY new tax decrees. When Parlements refused to post stuff from the king the king could FORCE Them ONLY with a "Lit de Justice"(Ok.....talk about feudal privilege and tradition. The king would LITERALLY have to show up in a BED with pillows adorning it and address the parlements. He'd get his way from there. ) I want yo to remember that Louis XV and certainly the XVI are NO LOUIS XIV--then again, who is?! Demands for economic reform to save the fRench economy begin in the 1770's. The Parlements REFUSED any attempt to remove their privileges relating to taxation. They DON"T PAY TAXES!!!! Even w the growth of the bourgeoisie class in the 3rd Estate, the nobility would be able to restrict the rise of them due to issues of taxation. The 2nd DON"T PAY TAXES!! All in the 3rd do! Basically, the Parlements were stubborn, ancient, and unwilling to yield any belief in their "traditional rights" to save France. The poor were friendly w the Parlements because they maintained traditional order. They protected the church they stood up to the King. The Bourgeoisie and the emerging middle class w/in the third estate HATED it. They saw it as unREASONable. As ancient. Unfair. In need of replacement. 

ROOTS of Rev.

France of the Ancien Regime (old regime) is a system seeped in traditional rights and privileges for the few BUT all powerful. The system was based on your CLASS or “estate.” If Ancien Regime France there r 3 Estates. 1st-Clergy 1% of population (bishops, arch bishops, cardinals. Many of these dudes had been born into the nobility. REMEMBER! French Kings maintained the right to appoint-sell- religious positions since the Concordat de bologna which really created a Gallican(french) Catholic Church) 2nd Estate-Nobility 2% of population. NEITHER THE 1st or 2nd Estate paid ANY Taxes. 3rd Estate “everybody else!!!” 97% of population. They paid all the taxes, fought the wars, corvee, NO-zero political rights. NONE. The third estate could be peasants, tenant farmers, working class, laborers, business owners, attorneys, professional class, shop keepers. Notice the last few groups would not be typically “poor.” However, there status as 3rd estate gave them zero rights. Many of them grew rich or had some money, owned land, were highly educated, etc. THIS GROUP of the 3rd Estate would earn the title of Bourgeoisie. This was the era of the enlightenment. These people were tired of having no rights, being forced to give loans, serve, have no political opportunity, etc. Remember, the Enlightenment said the ONLY reason for govt was to protect “life, liberty, and property”-Locke. IF ur gov isn't doing that GET RID OF THEM. Accordingly, Voltaire was an absolute believe in FREE Speech. The 3rd estate could not challenge the king. If they did, they were punished. Many held w/out trial or tortured (remember what becarria said “ON” Crime and Punishment!?)  The king, Louis XVI is an IDIOT. Dumb, ill prepared to be leader of the greatest most powerful kingdom of Europe. Total loser. Unfortunately, the kingdom he inherits is greatly in debt, it’s broke and has few new avenue’s to collect taxes from a third estate already crushed by taxation. The 1st&2nd refuse to pay any taxes due to their TRADITIONAL role. The economy and the Louis XVI’s assistance to the American colonists fight against the British and broken the french economy. Ironically, demands for economic and political change had been happening for years, going back to louis XV. Louis xv KNEW the future was not bright for his country. the established Privilege and tradition as well as STUPID economic system meant that the Ancien Regime was due for change. He said before he died….”After me…….the Deluge (the flood)  Things will definitely begin to change. Louis XVI will have to get answers, help. An “Assembly of Notables” will be called. It is NOT the Estates General which was the “Parliamentary” body in France. Remember, #England is different cuz their parliament HAD to be called due to Glorius Revolution. King had little power. IN france,  NOT AT ALL! The king only called Estates Gen when he wanted. The last one had been Henry IV (yeah, 175 years earlier!) French kings acted, did what they wanted with ABSOLUTE authority. Remember Louis XIV. Louis XVI is NOT Great Grandpa by any means.




Let's think about Mozart. DEFINITELY a creation of the ENLIGHTENMENT. Before and even @ the beginning of his career musicians were typically part of a court. They belonged to a king or a noble or the Church. They commissioned songs based on what their master wanted. Birthday songs, party songs, celebratory songs you name it. Mozart will be the beginning of a huge change for musicians. He will work for the court AND archbishop of Salzburg in Austria. Soon, he'll travel to both england and FRANCE. Both, especially the latter, were  evolving socially and politically as to what the role and freedom of a person might include. Remember, the Enlightenment is ALL about freedom. Speech, expression, rich man V poor man equality, judicial rights, ECONOMIC rights, and a dislike for guilds due to restrictions ONLY allowing guild members to make specific projects.(we've been talking about Cottage industry---it's OUTSIDE of the cities and away from controls of the guild) Anyway, this rise in freedom will also create public music houses for people to go and hear music. Concerts will be put on in the parks for the people. Musicians will HAVE to  be hired. Mozart will be one of these guys who'll move away from "belonging" to a king or the church and will sell his services to those willing to pay. Opera houses, public concerts, etc where people PAY to see him. Rock star stuff. ALSO,,, unlike the Baroque music before him the Classical music he creates includes tons of secular themes. It also celebrates the lives of average people. The marriage of figaro has the servants at the center of it all. The opera is cool because its show one's NOBLE birth means nothing. IT will be embraced by the middle class of society who may have had money and success but since they were NOT noble, they were really nothing. Mozarts Marriage of Figaro also promotes WOMEN's RIGHTS! Suzanne, one of the servants, is annoyed that her husband Figaro, as a dude, is trying to assert himself and keep her down. She tells him straight up I'm independent! I'm a rational, thinking person. Leave me alone!
*******CAPITALISM! What is it? "Capital" refers to the means of production that allow you to make money. A capitalist believes in the FREE MARKET. Let the "market" determine the price. For 20 bucks would you buy a burger? What about six bucks? The govt has NO place in determining the value of something. Laissez faire....govt...stay out of the business of business. Capitalist will use their capital to make money. Many capitalist, smart ones at least, will take profits that they make and REINVEST that $$ into research and development to make better production better and MORE efficient.Keep costs down. The lower the cost the lower i can sell the product (which the market will determine) the more likely people will be interested in buying. Guilds HATE this. Artisans were masters in producing goods. Now...(well it takes a while but the point being...)ANYone can enter the market place making and then selling a good. It can be cheaply done but if the price is right, people will by it. Capitalism promotes COMPETITION! Competition keeps prices LOW!! This is AWESOME for you and i the consumer, we want cheap prices. This devastate the artisans and the guilds. As capitalist continue to make $$ and create jobs a new MIDDLE class will emerge. These folks will be referred to as the Bourgeoisie. They have money, education, opportunity, land perhaps. However..under the old system, they have NO political rights. Rememver, the nobility and the church wield ALL the power(NOT IN ENGLAND!) Also, good business people work to become more efficient. We saw that utilizing science and reason to utilized farm land better. It's NO different than a business. Think about groceries stores(this could be used as synthesis in an LEQ) stores hire check out clerks. They're expensive, require healthcare, vacation, sick time, lunch breaks. Pay for a SELF check out machine and all it costs is the initial investment. They don't get sick, complain, argue, talk back, need vacation. This is GREAT for the business man but BAD for the employees. 


Hobbes V. Locke! Conservatism V. Liberalism  First, ignore any understanding the terms liberal and conservative that you understand today. They have evolved significantly through the last few hundred years. In our class, when we say conservative we say KINGS GOOD! Strong Monarchy! Absolutism! Mercantilism! Monopolies! Centralized authority usually w a king! The Catholic Church. Artisans and Guilds!***********ok...when we say liberalism we think Constitutionalism! Parliaments! Religious freedom and diversity! A separation of church and state! FREE TRADE! No guilds, NO MONOPOLIES! Let's do business and LET"S make $$$! Let's advocate human reason and potential. Liberalism is one of key themes we'll see come out of the Age of Enlightenment. 
"The State of Nature" is a hypothetical place that philosophers use to describe the world before man organized into govt. Man is TOTALLY free. Man is not controlled. Different philosophers will describe the HORROR or charm of it. First!
Thomas Hobbes. AN english dude who saw the English Civil war and Louis XIV. HUGE fan of absolutism. HUGE. People are greedy, self interested, and will do whatever it takes to survive. Hence, this component of human nature makes the state of nature a HORRIFYING place. "life is nasty, brutish, and SHORT!" in the state of nature according to Hobbes. SO>......you need a strong, absolute leader. A father figure, a partiacrchial society where the king controls everything to keep man, who is a selfish selfish creature in check. You give up your freedom but in return you're safe, happy, and healthy! OBEY!  John Locke on the other hand says the state of nature is ok. Some conflict, people are rational beings so they'll figure things out. But....let's keep things safe and elect leaders and a govt. who's ONLY job is to do 3 things. Protect our natural rights; rights that ALL HUMANS as RATIONAL beings are born w. "life, liberty, and the PURSUIT of PROPERTY (land,$$, you're own business) Hobbes represent conservativism and locke represents liberalism. 
 The scientific rev will begin to further challenge claims of the church. Faith is not enough for many scientists. They must be able to see and observe things in order to believe. To many religious, the new ideas of science were a threat to religion. Many scientific discoveries disproved biblical and CHruch claims. Protestants called for PRIVATE interpretation of the Bible. "you interpret it anyway you want." on the other hand, the catholic church, who for centuries said that they alone interpreted the bible for the masses (hence, the reason for it to only be written in latin which most folks' could not read) The church did not believe that layman(non clergy members) could interpret the bible. So after the council of Trent the Catholic church actually began to take  literal view of the bible. Galilleo will challenge the church by supporting Copernicus' view of heliocentrism, which was in contrast to the Church's support of geocentrism. They censured those ideas. Gallileo kept at it and was summoned before the Inquisition. Rememer, the Catholic church is an INCREDIBLY Conservative institution. They will be anti-"liberalism"  Many books and ideas (see Spain) will be banned. 
****Let's make peace! According to Blaise Pascal (aka Pascal) both religion and science could work together. he thought catholic jesuits too strict. He also rejected the ideas of atheists and Deists. He said "a loving God exists and that deists and atheists had overestimated Reason as a way to explain the world." His contribution is this: Pascal's Wager. Believe in God....what do you have to lose? You die and God exists you go to heaven. You die and he doesn't, well....If you believe you gain EVERYTHING! He argues that belief in God improved morals and social values. 
**Women and the scientifiC Rev
As has become common in our studies, we see that women had been excluded from most opportunities. Women were denied opportunity in the intellectual world. Margaret Cavendish had been tutored as a girl and then married well. This opportunity allowed her to surround herself w great minds. She will contribute much to the dialogue. She was able to debate the new ideas and became so respected that she was able to visit the Royal Society of London(a science center) 


Here is an intro, one body paragraph and concluding paragraph with "synthesis" Let me know if you need help. Rememver, your LEQ prompts will be absolutism and reformation stuff. Argue well!!!


**Absolutism REALLY begins to emerge with the stewardship of the Cardinal Richelieu. This guy was interested STRENGHTENING the power of the monarchy. He'll work for Louis 13(XIII) Louis the 13th will listen to Richelieu and begin to suppress the Huegenot's throughout France. Richelieu saw the Protestatns as great threats to the centralizing efforts of both him and the monarchy. They, the huegenots, were protestant. They were noble. They owned land, castles, lived behind castle walls/city walls(remember my poster!?) Louis will unleash Richelieu to crush the huegenots. One particular stronghold, St Rochelle (the poster) will be crushed. They'll destroy ALL castles, castle wall, and NO ONE other than the king may maintain an army. The king will maintain a STANDING ARMY! Richeliue and Louis will both die. They'll both have successors, though. Cardinal Mazzarin, an Italian, will guide the young Louis the xiv. It's not much later when the nobility will see an opportunity to attack the young king, the Fronde will convince Louis XIV that the nobility should not be trusted. 
Two types of nobility are now happening in France by mid 17th century. You got the OLD nobility, who claim their title from the OLD days, the Medieval Era where the nobility were feudal lords. They were the nobility of the Sword. They actually had the RIGHT to carry swords around and to court. The other group of nobility will be those that are incredibly wealthy; the nobility of the ROBE! They'll buy their titles from the king. Owe their status to the king an be "loyal" to the king. BACK TO THE FRONDE!! This will convince a young louis that he needs to get OUT of Paris. He'll have Versailles built on the outskirts of paris. This palace is MOREthan just a palace. It's a symbol of loiuis TOTAL control over society. Court life, political life, social life, everything was directed from here. It'll be the PERFECT place to keep "your friends close, and you enemies closer." He'll have the nobility live here. It'll be such an effective tool (or home court advantage!) that other Absolute monarchs will follow suit. Peter the Great will build St. Petersburg. Frederick the Great will build San Souci outside of Berlin. Its the ultimate symbol of absolutism. 
Economics! The economic system of absolutism/conservative/monarchy is MERCANTILISM! The acquisition of bullion or other resources for the benefit of the state. It's Pro monopoly. Pro unions/guild, pro colonialism, ANTI-Free trade. The architect of this is Jean Baptiste Colbert. Colbert believe that all wealth should serve the STATE!!! He'll use much of the wealth created to help build roads, canals, charge HUGE tariffs(tax on IMPORTED GOODS!!) bridges, stuff to facilitate and improve trade and business and therefor make $$ for france! Louis also made $$ by selling titles (nobility of the robe.) and military positions It created $$ and LOYALTY!! absolutism!!!! Control! taxation....ONLY the poor get taxed. The nobility do NOT. It's a good idea. The nobles, who'll always annoy a king don't get taxed and in return they have to squash the peasants when they act up. This will create loads of resentment. 
Religion. While Richelieu already struck out against the huegenots' it'll be louis xiv who ENDS the edict of nantes and end religious "tolerance" in France. Edict of Fontanbleu BANS protestantism. 
War. The man LOVED it. The apex of it comes with the war of spanish succession. The spanish king, charle 2 cannot have children so will have no heirs. Louis claims it for his grandson. Charles LEAVES it to him! War breaks out. The League of Augsburg was created to create a "balance of power" to restrict Loius. The war is incredibly lONG and costly. Really, it'll help (along with louis lavish lifestyle) bankrupt France. The war was fought in europe and NORTH america colonies. (called queen annes war there) "I have loved war too much" he said on his deathbed. Ultimately, the war ends in a draw. Louis' grandson get's to be the FIRSt Bourbon king of spain BUT has to renounce for himself and his children EVER laying claim to the throne of france. In return, Loius has to give up tons of colonial land in north america.