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Buchan, Kelly » 2018-19 School Year!

2018-19 School Year!

Welcome Mustangs!

This is my Fifteenth year as a social studies teacher and my tenth as a Mustang. Previously, I spent five great years at Bernardo Yorba Middle School.

This year I will be teaching world and AP European history. Also, I will be the coach of our Academic Decathlon team.

Parents AND Students! Please sign up for my text service through Remind.com I will send texts with historical information that can be beneficial. See website for information. Additionally, all students need to sign up for google classroom. I'll post many things w/in it that you will be responsible for. Glad to have you and I'm very excited to be with you for the year!
 
El Dorado High School 1997
UCSB 2001


 

Recent Posts

ROOTS of Rev.

France of the Ancien Regime (old regime) is a system seeped in traditional rights and privileges for the few BUT all powerful. The system was based on your CLASS or “estate.” If Ancien Regime France there r 3 Estates. 1st-Clergy 1% of population (bishops, arch bishops, cardinals. Many of these dudes had been born into the nobility. REMEMBER! French Kings maintained the right to appoint-sell- religious positions since the Concordat de bologna which really created a Gallican(french) Catholic Church) 2nd Estate-Nobility 2% of population. NEITHER THE 1st or 2nd Estate paid ANY Taxes. 3rd Estate “everybody else!!!” 97% of population. They paid all the taxes, fought the wars, corvee, NO-zero political rights. NONE. The third estate could be peasants, tenant farmers, working class, laborers, business owners, attorneys, professional class, shop keepers. Notice the last few groups would not be typically “poor.” However, there status as 3rd estate gave them zero rights. Many of them grew rich or had some money, owned land, were highly educated, etc. THIS GROUP of the 3rd Estate would earn the title of Bourgeoisie. This was the era of the enlightenment. These people were tired of having no rights, being forced to give loans, serve, have no political opportunity, etc. Remember, the Enlightenment said the ONLY reason for govt was to protect “life, liberty, and property”-Locke. IF ur gov isn't doing that GET RID OF THEM. Accordingly, Voltaire was an absolute believe in FREE Speech. The 3rd estate could not challenge the king. If they did, they were punished. Many held w/out trial or tortured (remember what becarria said “ON” Crime and Punishment!?)  The king, Louis XVI is an IDIOT. Dumb, ill prepared to be leader of the greatest most powerful kingdom of Europe. Total loser. Unfortunately, the kingdom he inherits is greatly in debt, it’s broke and has few new avenue’s to collect taxes from a third estate already crushed by taxation. The 1st&2nd refuse to pay any taxes due to their TRADITIONAL role. The economy and the Louis XVI’s assistance to the American colonists fight against the British and broken the french economy. Ironically, demands for economic and political change had been happening for years, going back to louis XV. Louis xv KNEW the future was not bright for his country. the established Privilege and tradition as well as STUPID economic system meant that the Ancien Regime was due for change. He said before he died….”After me…….the Deluge (the flood)  Things will definitely begin to change. Louis XVI will have to get answers, help. An “Assembly of Notables” will be called. It is NOT the Estates General which was the “Parliamentary” body in France. Remember, #England is different cuz their parliament HAD to be called due to Glorius Revolution. King had little power. IN france,  NOT AT ALL! The king only called Estates Gen when he wanted. The last one had been Henry IV (yeah, 175 years earlier!) French kings acted, did what they wanted with ABSOLUTE authority. Remember Louis XIV. Louis XVI is NOT Great Grandpa by any means.

 EXTRA CREDIT Opportunity EXPIRED. 

 

TIps

Let's think about Mozart. DEFINITELY a creation of the ENLIGHTENMENT. Before and even @ the beginning of his career musicians were typically part of a court. They belonged to a king or a noble or the Church. They commissioned songs based on what their master wanted. Birthday songs, party songs, celebratory songs you name it. Mozart will be the beginning of a huge change for musicians. He will work for the court AND archbishop of Salzburg in Austria. Soon, he'll travel to both england and FRANCE. Both, especially the latter, were  evolving socially and politically as to what the role and freedom of a person might include. Remember, the Enlightenment is ALL about freedom. Speech, expression, rich man V poor man equality, judicial rights, ECONOMIC rights, and a dislike for guilds due to restrictions ONLY allowing guild members to make specific projects.(we've been talking about Cottage industry---it's OUTSIDE of the cities and away from controls of the guild) Anyway, this rise in freedom will also create public music houses for people to go and hear music. Concerts will be put on in the parks for the people. Musicians will HAVE to  be hired. Mozart will be one of these guys who'll move away from "belonging" to a king or the church and will sell his services to those willing to pay. Opera houses, public concerts, etc where people PAY to see him. Rock star stuff. ALSO,,, unlike the Baroque music before him the Classical music he creates includes tons of secular themes. It also celebrates the lives of average people. The marriage of figaro has the servants at the center of it all. The opera is cool because its show one's NOBLE birth means nothing. IT will be embraced by the middle class of society who may have had money and success but since they were NOT noble, they were really nothing. Mozarts Marriage of Figaro also promotes WOMEN's RIGHTS! Suzanne, one of the servants, is annoyed that her husband Figaro, as a dude, is trying to assert himself and keep her down. She tells him straight up I'm independent! I'm a rational, thinking person. Leave me alone!
 
*******CAPITALISM! What is it? "Capital" refers to the means of production that allow you to make money. A capitalist believes in the FREE MARKET. Let the "market" determine the price. For 20 bucks would you buy a burger? What about six bucks? The govt has NO place in determining the value of something. Laissez faire....govt...stay out of the business of business. Capitalist will use their capital to make money. Many capitalist, smart ones at least, will take profits that they make and REINVEST that $$ into research and development to make better production better and MORE efficient.Keep costs down. The lower the cost the lower i can sell the product (which the market will determine) the more likely people will be interested in buying. Guilds HATE this. Artisans were masters in producing goods. Now...(well it takes a while but the point being...)ANYone can enter the market place making and then selling a good. It can be cheaply done but if the price is right, people will by it. Capitalism promotes COMPETITION! Competition keeps prices LOW!! This is AWESOME for you and i the consumer, we want cheap prices. This devastate the artisans and the guilds. As capitalist continue to make $$ and create jobs a new MIDDLE class will emerge. These folks will be referred to as the Bourgeoisie. They have money, education, opportunity, land perhaps. However..under the old system, they have NO political rights. Rememver, the nobility and the church wield ALL the power(NOT IN ENGLAND!) Also, good business people work to become more efficient. We saw that utilizing science and reason to utilized farm land better. It's NO different than a business. Think about groceries stores(this could be used as synthesis in an LEQ) stores hire check out clerks. They're expensive, require healthcare, vacation, sick time, lunch breaks. Pay for a SELF check out machine and all it costs is the initial investment. They don't get sick, complain, argue, talk back, need vacation. This is GREAT for the business man but BAD for the employees. 

Tips!

Hobbes V. Locke! Conservatism V. Liberalism  First, ignore any understanding the terms liberal and conservative that you understand today. They have evolved significantly through the last few hundred years. In our class, when we say conservative we say KINGS GOOD! Strong Monarchy! Absolutism! Mercantilism! Monopolies! Centralized authority usually w a king! The Catholic Church. Artisans and Guilds!***********ok...when we say liberalism we think Constitutionalism! Parliaments! Religious freedom and diversity! A separation of church and state! FREE TRADE! No guilds, NO MONOPOLIES! Let's do business and LET"S make $$$! Let's advocate human reason and potential. Liberalism is one of key themes we'll see come out of the Age of Enlightenment. 
"The State of Nature" is a hypothetical place that philosophers use to describe the world before man organized into govt. Man is TOTALLY free. Man is not controlled. Different philosophers will describe the HORROR or charm of it. First!
Thomas Hobbes. AN english dude who saw the English Civil war and Louis XIV. HUGE fan of absolutism. HUGE. People are greedy, self interested, and will do whatever it takes to survive. Hence, this component of human nature makes the state of nature a HORRIFYING place. "life is nasty, brutish, and SHORT!" in the state of nature according to Hobbes. SO>......you need a strong, absolute leader. A father figure, a partiacrchial society where the king controls everything to keep man, who is a selfish selfish creature in check. You give up your freedom but in return you're safe, happy, and healthy! OBEY!  John Locke on the other hand says the state of nature is ok. Some conflict, people are rational beings so they'll figure things out. But....let's keep things safe and elect leaders and a govt. who's ONLY job is to do 3 things. Protect our natural rights; rights that ALL HUMANS as RATIONAL beings are born w. "life, liberty, and the PURSUIT of PROPERTY (land,$$, you're own business) Hobbes represent conservativism and locke represents liberalism. 
 
 The scientific rev will begin to further challenge claims of the church. Faith is not enough for many scientists. They must be able to see and observe things in order to believe. To many religious, the new ideas of science were a threat to religion. Many scientific discoveries disproved biblical and CHruch claims. Protestants called for PRIVATE interpretation of the Bible. "you interpret it anyway you want." on the other hand, the catholic church, who for centuries said that they alone interpreted the bible for the masses (hence, the reason for it to only be written in latin which most folks' could not read) The church did not believe that layman(non clergy members) could interpret the bible. So after the council of Trent the Catholic church actually began to take  literal view of the bible. Galilleo will challenge the church by supporting Copernicus' view of heliocentrism, which was in contrast to the Church's support of geocentrism. They censured those ideas. Gallileo kept at it and was summoned before the Inquisition. Rememer, the Catholic church is an INCREDIBLY Conservative institution. They will be anti-"liberalism"  Many books and ideas (see Spain) will be banned. 
 
****Let's make peace! According to Blaise Pascal (aka Pascal) both religion and science could work together. he thought catholic jesuits too strict. He also rejected the ideas of atheists and Deists. He said "a loving God exists and that deists and atheists had overestimated Reason as a way to explain the world." His contribution is this: Pascal's Wager. Believe in God....what do you have to lose? You die and God exists you go to heaven. You die and he doesn't, well....If you believe you gain EVERYTHING! He argues that belief in God improved morals and social values. 
 
**Women and the scientifiC Rev
As has become common in our studies, we see that women had been excluded from most opportunities. Women were denied opportunity in the intellectual world. Margaret Cavendish had been tutored as a girl and then married well. This opportunity allowed her to surround herself w great minds. She will contribute much to the dialogue. She was able to debate the new ideas and became so respected that she was able to visit the Royal Society of London(a science center) 
 

LEQHELP!

Here is an intro, one body paragraph and concluding paragraph with "synthesis" Let me know if you need help. Rememver, your LEQ prompts will be absolutism and reformation stuff. Argue well!!!

Louis14,ABSOLUTISM

**Absolutism REALLY begins to emerge with the stewardship of the Cardinal Richelieu. This guy was interested STRENGHTENING the power of the monarchy. He'll work for Louis 13(XIII) Louis the 13th will listen to Richelieu and begin to suppress the Huegenot's throughout France. Richelieu saw the Protestatns as great threats to the centralizing efforts of both him and the monarchy. They, the huegenots, were protestant. They were noble. They owned land, castles, lived behind castle walls/city walls(remember my poster!?) Louis will unleash Richelieu to crush the huegenots. One particular stronghold, St Rochelle (the poster) will be crushed. They'll destroy ALL castles, castle wall, and NO ONE other than the king may maintain an army. The king will maintain a STANDING ARMY! Richeliue and Louis will both die. They'll both have successors, though. Cardinal Mazzarin, an Italian, will guide the young Louis the xiv. It's not much later when the nobility will see an opportunity to attack the young king, the Fronde will convince Louis XIV that the nobility should not be trusted. 
 
Two types of nobility are now happening in France by mid 17th century. You got the OLD nobility, who claim their title from the OLD days, the Medieval Era where the nobility were feudal lords. They were the nobility of the Sword. They actually had the RIGHT to carry swords around and to court. The other group of nobility will be those that are incredibly wealthy; the nobility of the ROBE! They'll buy their titles from the king. Owe their status to the king an be "loyal" to the king. BACK TO THE FRONDE!! This will convince a young louis that he needs to get OUT of Paris. He'll have Versailles built on the outskirts of paris. This palace is MOREthan just a palace. It's a symbol of loiuis TOTAL control over society. Court life, political life, social life, everything was directed from here. It'll be the PERFECT place to keep "your friends close, and you enemies closer." He'll have the nobility live here. It'll be such an effective tool (or home court advantage!) that other Absolute monarchs will follow suit. Peter the Great will build St. Petersburg. Frederick the Great will build San Souci outside of Berlin. Its the ultimate symbol of absolutism. 
********
Economics! The economic system of absolutism/conservative/monarchy is MERCANTILISM! The acquisition of bullion or other resources for the benefit of the state. It's Pro monopoly. Pro unions/guild, pro colonialism, ANTI-Free trade. The architect of this is Jean Baptiste Colbert. Colbert believe that all wealth should serve the STATE!!! He'll use much of the wealth created to help build roads, canals, charge HUGE tariffs(tax on IMPORTED GOODS!!) bridges, stuff to facilitate and improve trade and business and therefor make $$ for france! Louis also made $$ by selling titles (nobility of the robe.) and military positions It created $$ and LOYALTY!! absolutism!!!! Control! taxation....ONLY the poor get taxed. The nobility do NOT. It's a good idea. The nobles, who'll always annoy a king don't get taxed and in return they have to squash the peasants when they act up. This will create loads of resentment. 
 
Religion. While Richelieu already struck out against the huegenots' it'll be louis xiv who ENDS the edict of nantes and end religious "tolerance" in France. Edict of Fontanbleu BANS protestantism. 
 
War. The man LOVED it. The apex of it comes with the war of spanish succession. The spanish king, charle 2 cannot have children so will have no heirs. Louis claims it for his grandson. Charles LEAVES it to him! War breaks out. The League of Augsburg was created to create a "balance of power" to restrict Loius. The war is incredibly lONG and costly. Really, it'll help (along with louis lavish lifestyle) bankrupt France. The war was fought in europe and NORTH america colonies. (called queen annes war there) "I have loved war too much" he said on his deathbed. Ultimately, the war ends in a draw. Louis' grandson get's to be the FIRSt Bourbon king of spain BUT has to renounce for himself and his children EVER laying claim to the throne of france. In return, Loius has to give up tons of colonial land in north america. 

HELP!

On page 427 you'll see something relating to the Navigation Acts. These acts or "laws" will be laws pertaining to mercantilism. Remember mercantilism???It's the ECONOMICS of ABSOLUTISM. Colonies exist to feed the mother country They feed the mother country w gold, silver, raw materials, agriculture, etc. THEN the Mother country sells it. The colonies, due to the Navigation Act, are NOT allowed to trade w anyone other than the mother country. This is mercantilism. Again...it's the economics of conservatism; ABSOLUTISM--kings. (We'll see people get annoyed by this soon. They like FREE trade:)) The New MEGALOMANIC King of France Louis XIV(HATES, HATES,HATES!!Nobles. End the Edict of Nantes and is the epitome of Absolutism) will promise to give King cHarles $$ if he converts to Catholicism and will assist him if Parliament attacks him. Charles cannot do this right away but to show good ol' Louis that they're pals, he'll issue the Declaration of Indulgences which ends religious discrimination against Catholics and other protestants. In response...The Parliament will issue the Test Act. This requires ALL people working for the Crown to say Transubstantiation is fake. NO Catholic would ever say this. ------Charles dies without a legitimate heir. His bro, James was a fool. He'll be the new king and will do EVERYTHING to antagonize the Parliament. His Dad started a civil war when he did this. James was attacking, using his power as King, to attack the most powerful people in England. This is the era of Louis XIV in France, who i said epitomized the idea of Absolutism. (BTW>>>>when i say absolutism..i mean the system of govt. where A KING has ABSOLUTE power over the state, over religion, over economics, over everything. We'll talk about enlightened absolutism soon which is a bit different) 
 
Extra Credit. The first three people to respond will get THREE extra credit points. Explain why Parliament saw it as MANDATORY to invite William and Mary to take over the throne. What did Parliament see happening? What experience had they encountered w an out of control king who sought to have absolute power. Also.....Explain why #Englandisdifferent means!! Do this ,get three assessment extra. Thisll be up til 9pm

"My Birds Have Flown" King Charles I

AGAIN......it all get's down to power. Who will control England? Is it is a constitutional country or an absolute monarchy? Does the European interpretation of Divine right of kings and their absolutism come to Enlgand? If the Purtians have a say "NO!!!"  Puritans like cromwell HATE the idea of centralized monarchy. The bishops, who are representatives of the king, instruct the faithful throughout enlgand how to pray, what to pray from ,etc. Puritans are furious. They're "Puritan" because they want to "purify" the catholic church of all Catholicism. NOW.....the king(charles I) who is MARRIED to a french girl who is super catholic, embraces many of the ideas of catholicism. He also thought Arminians (NOT armenian) thought was good. It believed "free will!" Man could choose if he were to be saved....this was wrong according to Puritans who believed in the idea of the "Elect," pre-destination.  That's just ONE of the problems. The Stuart Line is never really trusted. They came from Scotland which didn't really have a constitutional system. So, A. you have issues pertaining to religion in England....B. THEN ....you ave issues relating to King Charles demanding more $ via revenue. Of course he cannot issues taxes, only parliament can. However, he can issue decrees, expand Ship Money(force coastal town to pay $ to support a navy to protect the coast. He'll expand the definition of the "the coast" to generate more $$) he'll sell Titles, he'll sell lands. He's not  a good king. The puritans see him as ungodly. So...to get more money(cuz war will break out w Scotland, he'll need parliament to give him money) The war happens because Charles demanded the Scots(who he is ALSO king of) conform, follow the Church of England teachings. They wanted a single prayer book for both england and scotland .To the scottish Calvinists they went crazy!!! Some KING from ENGLAND telling "us how to worship!!! We determine how we worship God. No Pope and CERTAINLY NO KING will tell us what to believe, how to worship!!!)  The Scots rebel. The Scots win at 1st. Charles now TOTALLY needs $. "Hey parliament, let's meet." The Long Parliament meets. (Long cuz it met for essentially 20 years in a row) Parliament will further weaken the king, get rid of star chamber, end Ship Money. Also, the King MUST call Parliament everything 3 years and no just when he feels like it. The parliament is going to be all divided between Puritans ( both and extreme and moderate) were fighting over religion. King Charles saw a chance to act. He sent his soldiers to arrest those in parliament who'd opposed him. They'd already left, hearing he was coming. He was there, humiliated. "It appears my birds have flown away." The king has defied, ATTACKED the parliament...essentialyl his people. CIVIL War. Royal supporters of Charles known as "Cavaliers." Parliamentarians known as "Roundheads," they were the puritans. They hated the king thought parliament was for the people.   Eventually leading the Parliamentarian army will be Oliver Cromwell. His "New Model Army" is LEGIT!!!! Not like the kings army of well born sons given high rank, or well born men begin officers, the New Model Army was MERIT based. You're good---you're promoted. You stink at leading men, you're done." Charles is in real trouble. 

English CIVIL WAR!

Why?> Elizabeth leaves no heirs. the next in line is her cousin James from Scotland, who is ALSO KING of scotland.(His mom was mary queen of scots who Elizabeth executed!) Elizabeth's death end the Tudor Dynasty. ENGLAND has had a parliamentary system that makes laws. The king/queen has some power but not a ton. they cannot tax w/out parliaments consent. When James takes over he'll be the first of the STUART Line. In Scotland they had NO real form of constitutionalism, the king had lots of power. He'll come to england, become king, BUT he's (nor is is son!) too big of a fan of parliamentarianism. James is an advocate of the concept of divine right of kings. GOD see's to it that certain men are made monarch over others. It's a VERY controversial topic in England especially w the expansion of Puritanism. Remember, the Puritans are English Calvinists who want to "Purify" the church of england of ALL Popery, Catholicism! So what James will do is this: take ovre for elizabeth, sponsor the translation of the bible into English; it'll be the King James Bible, promote Divine Right of Kings---HATING on parliamentarianism (which his son Charles will push further and MAYBE....WITH HIS CATHOLIC WIFE support Catholicism in Enlgand???!!! who knows?) He' be known as the "wisest fool in christendom." 
 
----Ok....so this idea of divine right is going to be a problem. When James dies his son Charles takes over. His wife is french and we all know that France is super catholic. He'll embrace much of the ritual, dress, ornamentation, ceremony of catholicism. His wife remains devoutly catholic. Although he'll remain catholic, his belief in the church of enland is very similar to catholicism. These things; divine right, church of england, intimidation of puritans, weakening parliament and THEN!!! taxing will upset many throughout england. Those Puritans hate the idea of divine monarchy, hate centralized govt, and hate all things "Popish" (catholic, and even church of england) will strike against the king. There beilif is that if a ruler is Un-Godly, then he can be removed, overthrown. Their leader will be a puritan dude....a VERY religious, pius warlike dude named OLIVER CROMWELL!!!!